When a student has to write a research project paper, the need to cite a research paper which was a reference might appear. The main (basic) data you should write in a citation is not different for any style: it is the same. Still, the presentation style of the data may vary depending on which citation methods you are required to use: American Psychological Association (APA), Chicago, American Medical Association (AMA) or Modern Language Association (MLA) style.
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Let’s review how to cite a research paper in every style in details:
Begin with the Last Name and First Initial of the Author(s)
In case of using APA style, it is needed to invert names of authors (to put their last names as first words). After that, set a comma, and then write the author’s first initial. If there are multiple names to be mentioned, place an ampersand (&) between them.
- Like this: "Mark, M., & Warren, J."
Mention the Year of Research Paper Publication
Put it in parentheses next to the names of writers if the research paper you cite appeared in an academic journal. If the publication never happened, mention the year when they wrote it.
- For instance: "Mark, M., & Warren, J. (2016)."
- If you cannot get the date or any critical data, follow the guide here.
The Research Paper Title Listing to Cite
Capitalize sentences to provide a complete research paper title. Keep in mind that the first words of sentences and proper names should be written from capital letters. If there is a subtitle in the research paper you cite, type a colon, and then start its first word with a capital letter as well.
- Like here: "Mark, M., & Warren, J. (2016). Magic wands, brave hearts: The influence of online gaming on youth.”
If the research paper you need to cite was in the university, company or another institution database, its number of an index should be mentioned in parentheses next to research title.
- For example: "Mark, M., & Warren, J. (2016). Magic wands, brave hearts: The influence of online gaming on youth. (Report No. 4589)."
Indicate Where you Found the Research Paper to Cite
If an academic magazine or journal published the research paper, use the standard article format. In case of unpublished texts, show the reader the way to the research paper data in as many details as you can.
- For example: "Mark, M., & Warren, J. (2016). Magic wands, brave hearts: The influence of online gaming on youth. (Report No. 4589). Retrieved from Hogwarts University Archives, April 24, 2019."
Cite the Research in Parenthesis in Your Paper Body
While mentioning a phrase that has the origin in the research paper you cite, add the authors’ last names and the year of publication or writing of the document.
- For instance: "(Mark & Warren, 2016)."
- If the research paper hasn’t been dated, use the n.d. abbreviation: “(Mark & Warren, n.d.).”
Chicago Style to Cite
Begin to Cite a Research Paper with Names
The first author’s name is to be inverted: mention their last name at the beginning of the line. Other authors should be represented as usual. First names should be spelled out. The middle initial is used if it is on the original paper.
- Like here: For example: "Mark, Michael, and John Warren."
Use the Research Paper Title
The research paper title is written using the title case: most verbs, nouns, and adjectives are written from the capital letter (excluding conjunctions and articles). Enclose titles in quote signs and put the paper type next to the title.
- Like Here: “Mark, Michael, & John Warren. “Magic Wands, Brave Hearts: The Influence of Online Gaming on Youth." Doctoral thesis.”
Show the Year and Place of Publication
In case if they have never published the paper, use the date when the paper’s writing was completed. Follow Chicago style general guides to cite a research paper which was published.
- For instance: “Mark, Michael, & John Warren. “Magic Wands, Brave Hearts: The Influence of Online Gaming on Youth." Doctoral thesis. Hogwarts University, 2016.”
Note Additional Data Locating the Text
In case the paper was found online, provide a direct URL for the reader to go right to the text where you got it. In case research has a number in a database, it will be easier for the reader to find the research, too.
- Like here: “Mark, Michael, & John Warren. “Magic Wands, Brave Hearts: The Influence of Online Gaming on Youth." Doctoral thesis. Hogwarts University, 2016. Accessed at http://www.hogwartstheschool.edu/online_gaming.”
Keep Up With the Supervisor’s Instructions on Citing
Turabian (easy Chicago) and Chicago style papers widely use parenthetical citing or footnotes to reference in the text body.
- Footnotes look like full citations but without authors’ names inverting.
- In case you want to cite a research paper in parenthesis, use the format of “Author-Date” in Chicago citing. Like this: "(Mark and Warren 2012)."
How to Cite a Research Paper MLA
Authors at the Beginning
Names inverted: first go last names, then first names follow. First names are to be spelled out. In case the document has multiple writers, separate their names with commas.
- For instance: "Mark, Michael, and Warren, John."
Mention the Title
When citing n MLA style, titles and subtitles should be enclosed in quote marks. Most of the title words are capitalized except conjunctions or short articles if they are not standing first in titles or subtitles.
- Like here: "Mark, Michael, and Warren, John." Magic Wands, Brave Hearts: The Influence of Online Gaming on Youth.""
Let Them Know the Location
For the MLA style, the concept of a container plays a crucial role. The paper you complete is the part of something larger, and that larger thing may be included into an even greater one. To cite your research paper correctly, put the smallest containers first, and increase their scale gradually up to the greatest one.
- For instance, let’s suppose that you got the research materials as a part of the university archive collection. The citation might look like this: "Mark, Michael, and Warren, John." Magic Wands, Brave Hearts: The Influence of Online Gaming on Youth." Doctoral Theses 2010-2016. Hogwarts University Archives. Accessed April 24, 2019."
Body Cite: Reference in Parenthesis
When mentioning things that you are required to cite in your text, write authors’ names in parentheses together with numbers of pages where the particular data can be found.
- For instance: "(Mark & Warren, p. 137)."
Cite a Research Paper: AMA
The Last Name and First Name Initial of the Author
In AMA style, you need to begin to cite a research paper with names of those who wrote or edited the document you use. No punctuation marks except commas should be put between each name. If the number of authors exceeds six names, indicate the first three of them and add the "et al." mark after.
- For instance: "Mark M, Warren, J."
Sentence Case Title
To do so, capitalize only the first word of the sentence and all proper nouns (if are) of the document title. In case a subtitle shows up, put it following to a colon with an initial capital as the subtitle begins.
- Like here: "Mark M, Warren, J. Magic wands, brave hearts: The influence of online gaming on youth."
Journal Data for Published Articles
A paper published in a scientific or academic journal is another article in case of AMA style citation. The title abbreviations in italic font, the publication date, the number of an issue, and journal pages where readers can find the article are required citation elements.
- Check this: "Mark M, Warren, J. Magic wands, brave hearts: The influence of online gaming on youth. Hog. Bug. 2016; 29(3): 2341-2394."
Locate the Data of Unpublished Texts
For papers shown during symposiums or conferences, add the data about the appropriate event. In case you read the information online, add the direct URL where you found it and the date when that happened.
- For instance, if you need to cite a research paper presented during the scientific conference, check this: "Mark M, Warren, J. Magic wands, brave hearts: The influence of online gaming on youth. Oral presentation at Magic and Sorcery Annual Conference; April, 2019; London."
- To provide a correct citation for a paper found online, write something like this: "Mark M, Warren, J. Magic wands, brave hearts: The influence of online gaming on youth. http://www.hogwartstheschool.edu/online_gaming"
Body Cite: Superscript Numbers
To cite references in the text, provide a superscript number following the data to be cited. Then, when the bibliography is built, all citations will get listed in the order of appearance.
- For instance: "According to Mark and Warren, modern young gamers become much braver when facing critical situations in real life."
We hope this article will help you cite a research paper well. It is critical for the academic success of your papers. Be attentive and don’t forget about citing everything that belongs to other authors.